454 THE ELEPHANT SEAL CHAP. have long roots. The nose of the male has a dilatable proboscis. The southern Elephant Seal is Ml leoninus, and reaches a length of some 20 feet. It occurs on the shores of Elerguelen and some other more or less remote islands. Its habits have been studied and described by several observers, beginning with Alison in the last century. The late Professor Moseley gave a good account of this marine monster in his book on the voyage of the " Challenger." When the animal is enraged, the end of the snout is dilated; but when this happens there is no long and hanging proboscis such as has sometimes been described. The inflation aifeets the skin on the top of the snout, which thus rises rather upwards during inflation. The inflated region, according to Mr. "Vallentin, quoted by Mr. J. T. Cunningham, is about 1 foot long in an. individual of 17 feet. It has been stated that this proboscis is a temporary structure, only appearing in the breeding season; but recent observations have shown that this statement is inaccurate; it persists all the year round. The males fight greatly during the breeding season, and produce a roar which has been compared to the "noise made by a man when gargling." The females and the young males bellow like a bull. The males fight of course with their teeth, literally falling upon one another with their whole weight. Mr. Cunningham thinks that the use of the proboscis is to protect the nose from injury; or that it may be merely the result of "emotional excitement." In any ease the Bladder-nosed Seal, Cystophora, is undoubtedly protected from injury by the possession of a corre- sponding hood. The nose is the most vulnerable place, and the existence of this hood would stave off the effects of a blow in that region. Moseley, however, has said of Mdcrorhinus that it cannot be stunned by blows on the nose as other Seals can; but he attributes this, not to the dilated snout, but to the bony crest on the skull, and to the strength of the bones about the nose. This Seal crawls with difficulty on the land, and as the animals move " the vast body trembles like a great bag of jelly, owing to the mass of blubber by which the whole animal is invested, and which is as thick as it is in a whale/'1 When lying on the shore, these animals scrape sand and throw it over themselves, apparently to prevent themselves from being 1 Cunningham, "Sexual Dimorphism in the Animal Kingdom," London, 1900 ; jSee also Mower, TVoc. 2ool. #<*e. 1881, p. 145.